News

New publication: Flow karyotyping of wheat- Aegilops . . .
Annotation:  Breeding of wheat adapted to new climatic conditions and resistant to diseases and pests is hindered by a limited gene pool due to domestication and thousands of years of human selection. Annual goatgrasses (Aegilops spp.) with M and U genomes are potential sources of the missing genes and alleles. Development of alien introgression lines of wheat may be facilitated by the knowledge of DNA sequences of Aegilops chromosomes. As the . . .
New publication: Prospects of telomere-to-telomere . . .
Annotation: Sequence assemblies of most plant genomes remain fragmented, leaving the aim of gapless, telomere-to-telomere (T2T) sequence assemblies unattained. Revealing the causes of sequence gaps in the current assemblies helps determine the resources needed to close them. We analysed sequence gaps in the current long-read reference genome sequence of barley cv. Morex (MorexV3) by the optical map and sequence raw . . .
New publication: Repeat-based holocentromeres . . .
Annotation: While most eukaryotes contain single regional centromeres, several plant and animal lineages assemble holocentromeres along the entire chromosome length. In our study, we assembled genomes of three beak sedges (Rhynchospora pubera, R. breviuscula, and R. tenuis) with repeat-based holocentromeres as well as a genome of their closest monocentric relative, Juncus effusus, and compared their genome organization and evolution as a function of . . .
New publication: Fine structure and transcription . . .
Annotation: 45S ribosomal DNA loci are organized as long head-to-tail tandem arrays of nearly identical units, spanning several megabases of sequence. Due to this structure, the rDNA loci are the major sources of gaps in genome assemblies, and expression status of particular arrays remains elusive. We combined cytogenomics techniques with bioinformatics to reconstruct individual 45S rDNA arrays in hexaploid wheat, thus building a stepping stone for . . .
New publication: Genome dominance in Allium hybrids(A. . . .
Annotation: Genome dominance is a phenomenon frequently observed in newly developed interspecific hybrids. After merging two diverse genomes in a single nucleus opens, one of the parental genomes becomes dominant, while the other turns to be submissive. In Allium hybrids (A. cepa x A. roylei), we observed that chromosomes of A. cepa are gradually substituted by those of A. roylei. Our study describes that this phenomenon is probably underlined by female . . .
New publication: Draft sequencing crested wheatgrass . . .
Annotation: Crested wheatgrass (Agropyron cristatum), a wild relative of wheat, is an attractive source of genes and alleles for their improvement. Our work has created new genomic resources and increased the knowledge about the genome/chromosome structure of A. cristatum. Chromosome draft assemblies were created, and regions homologous to agronomically important genes were identified. The classification of repetitive DNA sequences revealed the . . .
New publication: Karyotype differentiation in . . .
Annotation: Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) is one of the main sources of plant proteins in the Indian subcontinent and West Asia, where two different morphotypes are grown. Here, we developed a system for fast molecular karyotyping for both morphotypes of cultivated chickpea by oligo-fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) barcodes. Our results show the potential of oligo-FISH barcoding for the identification of structural changes in chromosomes, and . . .
New publication: In‐depth sequence analysis of bread . . .
Annotation:   The VERNALIZATION1 (VRN1) gene encodes a MADS‐box transcription factor and plays an important role in the cold‐induced transition from the vegetative to reproductive stage. We performed an in‐depth sequence analysis of VRN1 homoeologs in a panel of 105 winter and spring varieties of hexaploid wheat.  We described novel allele associated with reduced flowering time and intronic mutation which is transcribed into an alternative . . .
Function of a gene important for seed development deciphered
Scientists from the Institute of Experimental Botany, Academy of Sciences of Czech Republic (IEB ASCR) in Olomouc have become the first in the world to unravel the function of a newly discovered gene that influences seed production and quality.  The discovery may help in breeding better and more resistant agricultural crops. Spanish experts from the Complutense University of Madrid were also involved in the research, which is reported in the . . .
New publication: Defects in meiotic chromosome . . .
Annotation:  The maintenance of genome stability is a key issue for all living organisms. Structural maintenance of chromosomes 5/6 (SMC5/6) complex is a crucial factor for preserving genome stability. Here, we found that mutations of SMC5/6 complex subunits reduced the plant fertility by producing the aborted ovules and paternally-inherited abnormal seeds. The mutations show an absence of chromosome segregation in the first and/or the second . . .
New publication: Proteome analysis of condensed barley . . .
Annotation:  Proteins play a major role in the 3D organization of nuclear genome and its function. While histones arrange DNA into nucleosomes, other proteins contribute to higher-order chromatin structures. We purified barley mitotic metaphase chromosomes and identified their proteins. This included proteins that were not known to be present on chromosomes. The experimentally validated presence of a nucleolar protein FIBRILLARIN 1 on metaphase . . .
New publication: Structural maintenance of chromosomes . . .
Annotation: Polyploidization is a common phenomenon in the evolution of flowering plants. Only a few genes controlling polyploid genome stability, fitness, and reproductive success are known. Here, we found that loss-of-function autotetraploid mutants of SMC5/6 complex subunits led to almost complete plant sterility. Hexaploid and aneuploid progeny with the extra genome copies or chromosomes were also detected. Our study suggests that the SMC5/6 complex . . .
New publication: Development of DNA markers from . . .
Chromosome organization of Aegilops   During the evolution of Aegilops and Triticum grass genera, ~3 Mya intensive diversification of D-genome lineage resulted in the formation of diploid C, M and U genomes of Aegilops. The extent of structural genome alterations, which accompanied their evolution and speciation, and which may negatively affect gene transfer into wheat, remains unknown. Using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), chromosome . . .
Great anniversary - nice book
It is already 100 years from the first reported artificial crossing of fescues and ryegrasses and development of the first artificial hybrid named later on as Festulolium. David Kopecky (from our Centre) and Arkadiusz Kosmala (IGR, Poznan) compiled a book entitled ‚Festulolium, from the Nature to Modern Breeding‘ consisting of 14 review and original research papers on genetics, evolutionary biology, ecology, physiology, biotechnology and . . .
Will the European Commission study bring about a . . .
The European Commission has published a groundbreaking study on new genome editing techniques (NGT). Among other things, it states that the use of new plant mutagenesis and cisgenesis techniques in NGT is as safe as traditional breeding techniques and that it is therefore appropriate to adapt existing European legislation to the latest scientific knowledge and technological progress.
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