News

New publication: In‐depth sequence analysis of bread . . .
Annotation:   The VERNALIZATION1 (VRN1) gene encodes a MADS‐box transcription factor and plays an important role in the cold‐induced transition from the vegetative to reproductive stage. We performed an in‐depth sequence analysis of VRN1 homoeologs in a panel of 105 winter and spring varieties of hexaploid wheat.  We described novel allele associated with reduced flowering time and intronic mutation which is transcribed into an alternative . . .
Function of a gene important for seed development deciphered
Scientists from the Institute of Experimental Botany, Academy of Sciences of Czech Republic (IEB ASCR) in Olomouc have become the first in the world to unravel the function of a newly discovered gene that influences seed production and quality.  The discovery may help in breeding better and more resistant agricultural crops. Spanish experts from the Complutense University of Madrid were also involved in the research, which is reported in the . . .
New publication: Defects in meiotic chromosome . . .
Annotation:  The maintenance of genome stability is a key issue for all living organisms. Structural maintenance of chromosomes 5/6 (SMC5/6) complex is a crucial factor for preserving genome stability. Here, we found that mutations of SMC5/6 complex subunits reduced the plant fertility by producing the aborted ovules and paternally-inherited abnormal seeds. The mutations show an absence of chromosome segregation in the first and/or the second . . .
New publication: Proteome analysis of condensed barley . . .
Annotation:  Proteins play a major role in the 3D organization of nuclear genome and its function. While histones arrange DNA into nucleosomes, other proteins contribute to higher-order chromatin structures. We purified barley mitotic metaphase chromosomes and identified their proteins. This included proteins that were not known to be present on chromosomes. The experimentally validated presence of a nucleolar protein FIBRILLARIN 1 on metaphase . . .
New publication: Structural maintenance of chromosomes . . .
Annotation: Polyploidization is a common phenomenon in the evolution of flowering plants. Only a few genes controlling polyploid genome stability, fitness, and reproductive success are known. Here, we found that loss-of-function autotetraploid mutants of SMC5/6 complex subunits led to almost complete plant sterility. Hexaploid and aneuploid progeny with the extra genome copies or chromosomes were also detected. Our study suggests that the SMC5/6 complex . . .
New publication: Development of DNA markers from . . .
Chromosome organization of Aegilops   During the evolution of Aegilops and Triticum grass genera, ~3 Mya intensive diversification of D-genome lineage resulted in the formation of diploid C, M and U genomes of Aegilops. The extent of structural genome alterations, which accompanied their evolution and speciation, and which may negatively affect gene transfer into wheat, remains unknown. Using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), chromosome . . .
Great anniversary - nice book
It is already 100 years from the first reported artificial crossing of fescues and ryegrasses and development of the first artificial hybrid named later on as Festulolium. David Kopecky (from our Centre) and Arkadiusz Kosmala (IGR, Poznan) compiled a book entitled ‚Festulolium, from the Nature to Modern Breeding‘ consisting of 14 review and original research papers on genetics, evolutionary biology, ecology, physiology, biotechnology and . . .
Will the European Commission study bring about a . . .
The European Commission has published a groundbreaking study on new genome editing techniques (NGT). Among other things, it states that the use of new plant mutagenesis and cisgenesis techniques in NGT is as safe as traditional breeding techniques and that it is therefore appropriate to adapt existing European legislation to the latest scientific knowledge and technological progress.
Olomouc scientists took part in sequencing the rye genome
After four years of research, scientists have succeeded in sequencing the genetic information of Europe’s third most important cereal grain – rye. Olomouc researchers from the Institute of Experimental Botany at the Czech Academy of Sciences (IEB), whose department is a partner of the Centre of the Region Haná for Biotechnological and Agricultural Research (CRH), also participated in the research.
New publication: A Panicum-derived chromosomal segment . . .
Annotation: Our long-term collaboration with Dr. Václav Mahelka from the Institute of Botany led to an exploring and characterization of foreign DNA material within wild barley genomes. We investigated the nature and evolution of chromosomal segment of Panicum (Poaceae, Panicoideae) origin occurring in the nuclear genomes of an Asian Hordeum bogdanii and of South American H. pubiflorum. In addition to rDNA genes and TEs, the five protein-coding . . .
New publication: A membrane-bound ankyrin repeat . . .
Annotation:  Plasma membrane-associated and intracellular proteins and protein complexes play a pivotal role in pathogen recognition and disease resistance signaling in plants and animals. Leaf rust is one of the most prevalent and most devastating wheat diseases. Here, we cloned the major race-specific leaf rust resistance gene Lr14a from hexaploid wheat. The Lr14a was found to encode a membrane-localized protein containing twelve ankyrin repeats . . .
New publication: A highly differentiated region of . . .
Annotation: Pm1a, the first powdery mildew resistance gene described in wheat, is part of a complex resistance gene cluster located in a distal region of chromosome arm 7AL that has suppressed genetic recombination, which hampered gene cloning by map-based approach. The paper reports the successful cloning of Pm1a from common wheat using the method of mutagenesis and resistance (R) gene enrichment sequencing (MutRenSeq), and identification of the . . .
New publication: Direct evidence for crossover and . . .
Annotation:  Crossing over, in addition to its strictly genetic role, is responsible for an orderly reduction of the chromosome number. As such, it is strictly controlled in frequency and distribution. In our new paper, we described direct evidence of chromatid interference. Using in situ probing in two interspecific plant hybrids during anaphase I, we demonstrated that the involvement of four chromatids in double crossovers is . . .
New publication: Ph2 encodes the mismatch repair . . .
Annotation: Meiotic recombination is a critical process for plant breeding, as it creates novel allele combinations that can be exploited for crop improvement. In wheat, a complex allohexaploid that has a diploid-like behaviour, meiotic recombination between homoeologous or alien chromosomes is suppressed through the action of several loci. Here, we report positional cloning of Pairing homoeologous 2 (Ph2) and functional . . .
New publication: Future agroclimatic conditions and . . .
Annotation: In the paper of Trnka et al., we modelled the future climate in Europe and its consequences for the grassland managements. Special attention has been paid to the prediction on the occurance of the different abiotic stresses. Using expert knowledge, recommendations for the breeding programs in each of the European regions were made, including specific advice for Festulolium Breeders.Link
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