News

Olomouc scientists took part in sequencing the rye genome
After four years of research, scientists have succeeded in sequencing the genetic information of Europe’s third most important cereal grain – rye. Olomouc researchers from the Institute of Experimental Botany at the Czech Academy of Sciences (IEB), whose department is a partner of the Centre of the Region Haná for Biotechnological and Agricultural Research (CRH), also participated in the research.
New publication: A Panicum-derived chromosomal segment . . .
Annotation: Our long-term collaboration with Dr. Václav Mahelka from the Institute of Botany led to an exploring and characterization of foreign DNA material within wild barley genomes. We investigated the nature and evolution of chromosomal segment of Panicum (Poaceae, Panicoideae) origin occurring in the nuclear genomes of an Asian Hordeum bogdanii and of South American H. pubiflorum. In addition to rDNA genes and TEs, the five protein-coding . . .
New publication: A membrane-bound ankyrin repeat . . .
Annotation:  Plasma membrane-associated and intracellular proteins and protein complexes play a pivotal role in pathogen recognition and disease resistance signaling in plants and animals. Leaf rust is one of the most prevalent and most devastating wheat diseases. Here, we cloned the major race-specific leaf rust resistance gene Lr14a from hexaploid wheat. The Lr14a was found to encode a membrane-localized protein containing twelve ankyrin repeats . . .
New publication: A highly differentiated region of . . .
Annotation: Pm1a, the first powdery mildew resistance gene described in wheat, is part of a complex resistance gene cluster located in a distal region of chromosome arm 7AL that has suppressed genetic recombination, which hampered gene cloning by map-based approach. The paper reports the successful cloning of Pm1a from common wheat using the method of mutagenesis and resistance (R) gene enrichment sequencing (MutRenSeq), and identification of the . . .
New publication: Direct evidence for crossover and . . .
Annotation:  Crossing over, in addition to its strictly genetic role, is responsible for an orderly reduction of the chromosome number. As such, it is strictly controlled in frequency and distribution. In our new paper, we described direct evidence of chromatid interference. Using in situ probing in two interspecific plant hybrids during anaphase I, we demonstrated that the involvement of four chromatids in double crossovers is . . .
New publication: Ph2 encodes the mismatch repair . . .
Annotation: Meiotic recombination is a critical process for plant breeding, as it creates novel allele combinations that can be exploited for crop improvement. In wheat, a complex allohexaploid that has a diploid-like behaviour, meiotic recombination between homoeologous or alien chromosomes is suppressed through the action of several loci. Here, we report positional cloning of Pairing homoeologous 2 (Ph2) and functional . . .
New publication: Future agroclimatic conditions and . . .
Annotation: In the paper of Trnka et al., we modelled the future climate in Europe and its consequences for the grassland managements. Special attention has been paid to the prediction on the occurance of the different abiotic stresses. Using expert knowledge, recommendations for the breeding programs in each of the European regions were made, including specific advice for Festulolium Breeders.Link
New publication: Chromosome genomics uncovers plant . . .
Annotation:  The identification of causal genomic loci and their interactions underlying various traits in plants has been greatly aided by progress in understanding the organization of the nuclear genome. Flow cytometric sorting of condensed mitotic chromosomes makes possible to purify single chromosomes in large quantities, and as the DNA remains intact this process can be coupled successfully with many techniques in molecular biology and genomics . . .
Researchers from Olomouc laboratory of IEB ASCR . . .
More efficient gene transfer from wild species to wheat and acquisition of new varieties with unique properties will be enabled by the identification of an important Ph2 wheat gene. Apart from French and Australian researchers, experts from the Olomouc Laboratory of the Institute of Experimental Botany of the Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic (IEB AS CR) have significantly contributed to the discovery published in Nature Communications.
New publication: Chromosome painting in cultivated . . .
Annotation: FISH with chromosome-arm specific oligo painting probes was used for comparative karyotype analysis in a set of wild Musa species and edible banana clones. The results revealed large differences in chromosome structure discriminating individual accessions. These results permitted identification of putative progenitors of cultivated clones and clarified genomic constitution and evolution of aneuploid banana clones. New insights into the . . .
New publication: Identification of polycomb repressive . . .
Annotation: Polycomb repressive complex 1 (PRC1) and 2 (PRC2) play important roles in many biological processes. They regulate gene expression at the epigenetic level by posttranslationally modifying specific histone residues. The identification of the PRC1 and PRC2 core components and their chromosomal location in hexaploid wheat may enable a deeper understanding of developmental processes, including vernalization, in commonly grown winter wheat . . .
New publication: Fonio millet genome unlocks African . . .
Annotation: Fonio millet (Digitaria exilis) is an orphan African cereal crop with a great potential for dryland agriculture. High-quality genomic resources were established to facilitate fonio improvement through molecular breeding. Creation of a chromosome-scale reference assembly and deep re-sequencing of 183 cultivated and wild Digitaria accessions enabled insights into genetic diversity, population structure, and domestication. Picture describtion:a . . .
New publication: Drought tolerance and regrowth . . .
Annotation: Our Centre is not only a place of excellent fundamental research. We also aim in helping breeders with their tasks. One of our last activity spans into the field of drought tolerance in forage grasses. Modelling of future climate indicates that this trait will be one of the key characteristics necessary to mitigate the impacts of climate change (especially the increased frequencies of summer drought periods). In collaboration with . . .
New publication: Cytogenetic insights into Festulolium
Annotation:  Climate change calls for new methods and plant materials to breed crops adapted to new environmental conditions. High-yielding ryegrasses (Lolium spp.), which are the most commonly used grass species, suffer during abiotic stresses, but introgression of drought and heat tolerance from closely related fescues (Festuca spp.) offers an opportunity to develop superior Festulolium (Festuca × Lolium) hybrid cultivars. In the last three . . .
New publication: Chromatin dynamics during interphase . . .
Annotation:  The genetic information is embedded in chromatin, represented by complexes of DNA with structural and regulatory proteins, which orchestrate nuclear functions in time and space. In this review, the consortium of experts from the COST action Impact of Nuclear Domains On Gene Expression and Plant (INDEPTH), including the lead author Ales Pecinka from IEB, summarizes current knowledge on the organization of plant chromatin and the . . .
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