Breeding of wheat adapted to new climatic conditions and resistant to diseases and pests is hindered by a limited gene pool due to domestication and thousands of years of human selection. Annual goatgrasses (Aegilops spp.) with M and U genomes are potential sources of the missing genes and alleles. Development of alien introgression lines of wheat may be facilitated by the knowledge of DNA sequences of Aegilops chromosomes. As the Aegilops genomes are complex, sequencing relevant Aegilops chromosomes purified by flow cytometric sorting offers an attractive route forward. The present study extends the potential of chromosome genomics to allotetraploid Ae. biuncialis and Ae. geniculata by dissecting their M and U genomes into individual chromosomes using cytometric analysis and chromosome flow sorting. Differences in flow karyotypes between Ae. biuncialis and Ae. geniculata were analyzed and discussed. Chromosome-specific genomic resources will facilitate gene cloning and development of molecular tools to support alien introgression breeding of wheat.